Saturday, March 14, 2020

5 New Years Resolutions Mark Zuckerberg Made That Can Inspire You

5 New Years Resolutions Mark Zuckerberg Made That Can Inspire You By any stretch, Mark Zuckerberg is one successful guy. He has more money than most of us can even conceive of, he spends a lot of that money and time on philanthropic efforts, and- oh yeah- he runs the biggest social networking company in the world. Yet even from his vantage point at the top of the world, there’s room for self-improvement. Zuckerberg has made some strong New Year’s resolutions in the past. And although they may be a little extreme for someone with more modest means and less time available, we can learn a lot from his approach.Here are some of his past years’ resolutions (or â€Å"challenges†), and what we can take from them.1. â€Å"Learning to speak Mandarin.†Becoming fluent in a challenging language may not be super-accessible to someone juggling a job, a family, and daily obligations without a full-time language tutor. But you can certainly find time to learn a new skill this year.2. â€Å"Writing a thank you note each day to so meone who made the world better.†If you have time to write a flowery thank you note to Gandhi or Elvis every day this year, great. If you don’t, just saying â€Å"thank you† to someone each day is great, too. You could make a coworker’s day by thanking him for something that might ordinarily go unnoticed. Being thankful for the smaller things (even when bigger things are going wrong) might also help you feel less stressed at work.3. â€Å"Being a vegetarian (or only eating meat if I killed the animal myself).†Again, this one could be a very large commitment, depending on how much you love bacon. But really, it could be any healthy habit that makes you more mindful. Maybe it’s 10  minutes of yoga at lunch. Maybe it’s going to a spin class after work to decompress. This one could also be about self-accountability and embracing the choices you make in the workplace, instead of looking for the nearest coworker to throw under the bus.4. à ¢â‚¬Å"Wearing a tie every day.†When I saw this one, I thought of the old adage, â€Å"dress for the job you want.† Even as society and workplaces have gotten more casual, there’s some merit in this one. Taking an extra step to look good for work can make you feel sharper and more ready for the day.5. â€Å"Meeting one new person who doesn’t work at Facebook every day.†This challenge is about building your network, social and professional. Getting out there and making connections is one of the best things you can do to make your year brighter. Best case, you’ve created relationships that could take your career to the next level. Worst case, you’ve widened your world a little bit.So what do you think? Are you up for these challenges, or ones like them?This article is part of Bulk Up Your Career in 2017  campaign. Access the entire guide here to help you succeed in 2017.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Assessing Infrastructure Failure Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Assessing Infrastructure Failure - Assignment Example This refers to the events which may be the cause of the simultaneous disturbance of various which may not connect or depend on any type (Perrow, 2007, p.  13). Each of the failed infrastructures may lead to recurring cascading failures of their dependant infrastructure. Some of the key policies to ease the infrastructure sector would be to check on corruption. Politicians and senior officials may acquire public resources to keep up their power status (Weidler, 2012, p.  45). This can lead to incomplete or low quality infrastructures which cannot withstand natural calamities. A corruption free declaration would help improve in infrastructure development. Improvement in rural access leads will play a very important role in a country’s economy which will help in infrastructure development as it will help decentralization of industries and transport of goods. The status of our infrastructure is a challenge to the Security Department. Good infrastructure boosts security’s mission in a way that security officials can counter any security threat in less time. Otherwise, poor infrastructure will pose a challenge in a way that it will take time to alert the security officers for help. A regime can plan for change in policy by conducting seminars to teach its citizen about construction of important infrastructures and be open about the total cost to avoid any type or creating chances for corruption and any other vice that may hinder

Monday, February 10, 2020

Evaluate a significant experience, achievement, risk you have taken, Essay - 1

Evaluate a significant experience, achievement, risk you have taken, or ethical dilemma you have faced and its impact on you - Essay Example It was getting late. My stomach rumbled to the thought of jerk chicken. Even though I was ignorant to what exactly the â€Å"jerk† component to the chicken was, I still wanted some to ease my demanding stomach. An American tourist, whom we had met earlier, had told us, â€Å"It’s an authentic Jamaican must-have. And the woman down about a quarter mile from here sells the best. Just look for the pink roofs.† I moved down to the beach from our cottage, letting my legs transport me to the transient line between the wet and the dry sands. The wind had stopped, leaving only calmness on the ocean surf coming in to greet me. Being alone, I could be myself, and allow the natural beauty open my mind to the foreignness of the landscape. I moved slowly down the beach, and as the pink roofs came into view, I emerged out of my reverie. The marketplace was crowded. There were no tourists in sight, and populated by merchants with dark metal food stands. Before I arrived, the community stood lively and laughing. After I arrived, the crowd fell silent. As I started to search for jerk chicken, a group of men approached. Their forearms and hands bulged with muscles. Their clothes held the dark dirt of the fields and were severely tattered in some parts, as if the men had just been done with a day of work. A familiar emotion came over me: fear to look into any one of their faces. I remember one of the men stepping to the front of the pack. Venturing no further up than his chest, I noticed a long diagonal gash running down his midsection. I wanted to cower down and crawl away. After a moment of silence, I mustered the courage to look up into his eyes dark, unforgiving, and questioning. He taunted, â€Å"Hi, litt’l girl! Dis ain’t da beach!† I ran, the gravel beneath my bare feet did not even faze me. My peaceful journey along the

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Rewards of Teaching ( A Reflection of Experience) Essay Example for Free

Rewards of Teaching ( A Reflection of Experience) Essay â€Å"Never in my wildest dreams have I dreamt of becoming a teacher.† This was my introductory line when I delivered my impromptu speech in front of a group of teachers who took master’s class at Xavier University. Along with this line were scenarios flashing back. . . My elementary and high school teachers tagging along not just big bags full of teaching materials but with commercial stuff to help augment the meager income they received in doing the taxing and heart quenching job of teaching. They were to me, missionaries who painstakingly labored their way out just to reach out to the young populace in far flung areas and made education available despite low salaries and in limbo benefits. Teachers were images of sacrifice, of service, and of deprivation to financial stability. They are sacrificial lambs in many occasions and situations which call for heroism. They are full of passion and are too busy to be in fashion and I could see how laborious their work was. These were reasons why I told myself that I should not become one. But fate has it all that brought me to my most dreaded profession. Situations and conditions pre-determined my destiny and it took me awhile to realize that it was never an accident that I matriculated education during college and that I was meant to become a teacher for life. It was during my early years of teaching when I truly realized that indeed teaching has never been an easy task. It is always paralleled with drawbacks, challenging responsibilities and unswerving demands of the job. It is twinned with orders, circulars, and memorandums which are bound to be followed and implemented. It is in fact, a profession which requires a certain degree of commitment, patience, service-orientation, level-headedness, and docility of heart to perform the tasks/responsibilities expected of it. In teaching, the teachers are duty bound to obey (sometimes blind obedience is deemed necessary) any policy and to perform its vast and enormous culpability. That is why teachers are always at risk and are prone to various stressors which in many cases have caused frailty. A lot of factors are to be considered in order not be weighed down by its pressures. Often times, the call of duty impede our personal desires and whimsical pleasures. The deadlines we have to meet, the requirements we have submit, the lessons and strategies we have to prepare, the clienteles we have to face, the co- workers we have to deal and the superiors we have to obey orders with are the myriad responsibilities a teacher has to perform. But my number of years in teaching has aligned my thoughts and has shaped my emotions. The day to day experiences and encounter with children has proven me wrong that despite the demands and challenges, there is fulfillment in teaching. There is a sense of pride and joy in knowing that children under your care have been formed into a total person and have become successful and great assets in the society where they belong. When students come back and say their pieces of sincere thank you, a certain feeling of elation is somehow felt bringing to mind the fruition of what I have labored for. With this thought, an inmost joy is felt knowing that I had my share in the most noble profession and mission of molding the hearts and minds of the children and above all, I have my share in building a nation with a promising future †¦ Furthermore, there is a rewarding feeling, knowing that, what I do in the service of the youngsters is my way of serving my creator, the Greatest Author and Teacher of all times. And in faith I know that my sacrifices will never be in vain in the eyes of my Master Teacher my unseen partner. My only prayer is to bloom in this vineyard where He has planted me and not to grow weary despite the tests that He prepared for me! Now I realized that, â€Å"never in my wildest dreams have I dreamt of becoming a teacher† because I was molded and predestined to be. HE is my potter and I’m just a clay.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

The Defender of the Faith Essay examples -- Essays Papers

The Defender of the Faith In Philip Roth’s, â€Å"Defender of the Faith†, Sergeant Nathan Marx is the â€Å"Defender† of whom the title speaks. Reluctant at first, Marx defended his faith on two fronts, one across the sea in Europe and the second in the United States. The battle in the states was of a different type. Marx learned what it was like to defend his and the faith of his fellow Jews against prejudice and abuse by those who waged the war. Marx is not an orthodox Jew. He does not follow the doctrine as most of those in his religion would and did not realize until asked by Grossbart that he was still religious. Though Grossbart showed him he was not like others, Grossbart was not the central antagonism, The war was. It was not that Marx was religious anymore, the religion was sentimental to him. Marx a battle-tested soldier in the U.S. Army did not even recognize that he had already defeated an enemy set to wipe his heritage. PFC Grossbart and Captain Barrett were Marx’s next opponents. Grossbart first introduced himself as â€Å"Sheldon,†(p.117) to try to get on a first name basis with Marx, for a familiarity that Marx did not want. Grossbart suspected Marx was Jewish by the spelling of his last name, which he spelled out as â€Å"M-a-r-x.†(p.117) Grossbart led Marx into believing he was interested in going to church instead of cleaning the barracks. Marx knowing it was unfair that they were denied the chance to attend service told Grossbart he could â€Å"attend shul†(p.118). By call...

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Capital Market Theory Rsm 332 – Week 2

CAPITAL MARKET THEORY RSM 332 – Week 2 Week 1 – Introduction – Financial Accounting (Review) Week 2 – Financial Markets and Net Present Value Week 3 – Present Value Concepts Week 4 – Bond Valuation and Term Structure Theory Week 5 – Valuation of Stocks Week 6 – Risk and Return – Problem Set #1 Due Week 7* – Midterm (Tuesday*) Week 8 – Portfolio Theory Week 9 – Capital Asset Pricing Model Week 10 – Arbitrage Pricing Theory Week 11 – Operation and Efficiency of Capital Markets Week 12 – Course Review – Problem Set #2 Due Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca CAPITAL MARKET THEORY RSM 332 – Week 2AGENDA 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Announcements Financial Markets and Net Present Value Survey Results Optional Material (e. g. Cases, Practical Knowledge, News, etc. ) Suggestions/Practice for Exam(s) Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Extended Office Hours Friday , October 19th (11:00am-3:00pm) †¢ Room 6 – TZ6 (Tanz Neuroscience Bldg – 6 Queen’s Park Crescent West) TBD – Saturday, October 20th †¢ Depends if there is enough demand Thursday, October 25th (5:00pm-7:00pm and 7:00pm-9:00pm) †¢ During regular timeslot †¢ Cover optional material (e. g. cases, practical knowledge, etc. ) Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Exams Midterm (Tuesday, October 23rd – 8:00pm-10:00pm): †¢ EX 100 (Examination Facility – 255 McCaul Street) †¢ 2 Hours Final (TBA): †¢ 2 Hours Preparation: †¢ Problem Sets 1 & 2 †¢ Crib Sheet (Start Early and 1-Sided) †¢ Calculator (Silent) Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Tutorials †¢ Starting – September 19/20/21 †¢ Wednesday (6:00pm-8:00pm) †¢ TZ6 (Tanz Neuroscience Bldg – 6 Queen’s Park Crescent West) †¢ Thursday (11:00am-1:00pm) †¢ RW 110 (Ramsay Wright Laborat ories – 25 Harbord Street) †¢ Friday (5:00pm-7:00pm) †¢ RW 110 (Ramsay Wright Laboratories – 25 Harbord Street) Review: †¢ Midterms and Finals (2008-2011) Xiaofei Zhao (xiaofei. [email  protected] utoronto. ca) †¢ http://332ta. raykan. com †¢ Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Outside of Lecture Office Hours (Drop-In): †¢ Wednesdays: 4:00pm-6:00pm †¢ 105 St. George Street – Rotman (North Building) Room 413 or 417 Office Hours (Other Days/Times): †¢ Extended Hours †¢ By Appointment Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Corporate Finance: What is Going On? 3) Firm’s Financial (5) Investors (4) (Financial Institutions, (1) Individuals, Other Firms) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Cash raised from investors by selling financial assets Cash invested in real assets (some are intangible) Cash generated by operations Cash reinvested in the firm (retained earnings) Cash repaid to investors (interest, divi dends, etc. ) Operations (2) Decision Maker Reference: Alex MacKay Financial Markets: What is Going On? Firms (Users of Capital) Initial Public Offering (IPO) Secondary Offerings (SEO) Borrowing (Loans, Bonds)Dividends, $ Repurchases, Interest Payments $ Market Mechanisms or Market Makers (Stock Exchanges, Banks, Investment Funds, †¦) $ $ Firms Issue Stock Certificates and Bonds $ $$$ Invested in Stocks and Bonds Investors (Providers of Capital) Investment Banks help firms make transactions Brokers/Dealers help investors make transactions Reference: Alex MacKay Financial Theory and Corporate Policy Chapter 1 (Copeland, Weston and Shastri) Course Reserve FINANCIAL MARKETS AND NET PRESENT VALUE Consumption Plan and Investment RuleConsider 1 period problems Assumptions: †¢ No uncertainty †¢ One period (two dates), consumptions occur on date 0 and date 1 †¢ A consumer is endowed with initial wealth (Y0) on date 0, and will receive income (Y1) on date 1 †¢ Simple interest rate (r) Date 0 Reference: Raymond Kan Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Date 1 Consumption Plan and Investment Rule 4 CASES †¢ Case I: †¢ Case II: No Capital Market, No Production Opportunities With Capital Market, No Production Opportunities †¢ Case III: No Capital Market, With Production Opportunities †¢ Case IV: With Capital Market, With Production OpportunitiesReference: Raymond Kan Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Consumption and Investment without Capital Markets C1 U2 U1 U0 C0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment without Capital Markets C1 Slope of the Tangent (-ve) = (Marginal Rate of Substitution) (MRS) MRS = ? C1 ? C0 U1 U(C0, C1) MRS = ? U / ? C0 ?U / ? C1 C0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Poli cy) 4 th Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment without Capital MarketsC1 Production/Investment Opportunity Set C0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment without Capital Markets C1 Rate at which a dollar of consumption today (C0) is transformed by productive investment into a dollar of consumption (C1) tomorrow. C0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment without Capital Markets C1 C0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment without Capital Markets C1 Marginal Rate of Transformation (MRT) MRT = ? C1 ? C0 C0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment without Capital Markets C1 U1 C0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment without Capital Markets C1 Y1 U1 Resource Bundle: (Y0, Y1) Y0Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th C0 Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment without Capital Markets C1 Increase investment until MRT = MRS U1 C0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment without Capital Markets C1 U2 U1 C0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment without Capital MarketsC1 MRT = MRS U2 U1 C0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment without Capital Markets C1 U2 U1 (Increase Investment) Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th C0 Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment with Capital Markets C1 Slope = -(1+r) Borrowing and Lending opportunities (Capital Market Line) (at market interest rate r) C0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment with Capital Markets C1 Interest plus Principal (Invest/Lending) Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th C0 Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment with Capital Markets C1 Interest plus Princip al (Borrowed Amount – Principal) Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th C0 Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment with Capital Markets C1 U1 C0Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment with Capital Markets C1 Y1 U1 Endowment: (Y0, Y1) Y0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th C0 Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment with Capital Markets C1 (Invest) Y1 U1 Y0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th C0 Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment with Capital Markets C1Market rate of return > Subjective Time Preference (1+r) > (1+rtime preference) Y1 U1 Y0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th C0 Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment with Capital Markets C1 U1 (Consume Less) Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th C0 Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment with Capital Markets C1 U1 (Invest) Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th C0Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment with Capital Markets C1 U2 Y1 U1 Y0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th C0 Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment with Capital Markets C1 Market Interest Rate = Subjective Time Preference U2 Y1 U1 Y0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th C0 Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment with Capital Markets (With Production Set) C1 U1 C0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] toronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment with Capital Markets (With Production Set) C1 C0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment with Capital Markets (With Production Set) C1 C0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment with Capital Markets (With Production Set) C1 C0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment with Capital Markets (With Production Set) C1 C0 Reference: Copeland, W eston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment with Capital Markets (With Production Set) C1 U3 = (production and capital market) U2 = (with production alone) U1 = (initial endowment) C0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th Edition 2004 Consumption Plan and Investment RuleConsider 1 period problems Assumptions: †¢ No uncertainty †¢ One period (two dates), consumptions occur on date 0 and date 1 †¢ A consumer is endowed with initial wealth (Y0) on date 0, and will receive income (Y1) on date 1 †¢ Simple interest rate (r) Date 0 Reference: Raymond Kan Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Date 1 Consumption Plan and Investment Rule 4 CASES †¢ Case I: †¢ Case II: No Capital Market, No Production Opportunities With Capital Market, No Production Opportuni ties †¢ Case III: No Capital Market, With Production Opportunities †¢ Case IV: With Capital Market, With Production Opportunities Reference: Raymond Kan Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Consumption Plan and Investment Rule CASE I – No Capital Market, No Production Opportunities †¢ Consumer can consume Y0 on date 0, and Y1 on date 1 Date 0 Reference: Raymond Kan Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Date 1 Consumption Plan and Investment Rule CASE II – With Capital Market, No Production Opportunities The set of consumption plans is broadened 1. 2. Consumer can save from Y0, invests in financial assets, and consumes more on date 1 Borrow against Y1, consume more on date 0, pay back loan with interest on date 1 from Y1, and consume less on date 1 Date 0 Reference: Raymond Kan Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Date 1 Consumption Plan and Investment Rule CASE II – With Capital Market, No Production Opportunitie s †¢ Denote C0 and C1 as date 0 and date 1 consumption respectively †¢ Constraint on them is: C1 = (Y0 – C0) (1+r) + Y1 Consumption Budget Line (Constraint) C0 + C1 = Y0 + Y1 1+ r 1+ r Y Date 0 Reference: Raymond Kan Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Date 1 In general, the consumer will be better off with capital markets Consumption Plan and Investment Rule CASE II – With Capital Market, No Production Opportunities Present Value †¢ For any cash flow, C0, C1, define its present value as: PV = C0 + C1 + r †¢ Budget constraint can be restated as: †¢ The present value of consumption equals the present value of income Date 0 Reference: Raymond Kan Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Date 1 Consumption Plan and Investment Rule CASE II – With Capital Market, No Production Opportunities Example: †¢ Assume an investor has a wealth of $1. 5M on date 0, and will have an income of $0. 55M on date 1 †¢ The intere st rate is 10%. †¢ The present value of total income is: $2M = $1. 5M + $0. 55M (1+ 0. 10) Date 0 Reference: Raymond Kan Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Date 1 Consumption Plan and Investment RuleCASE III – No Capital Market, With Production Opportunities Physical Investment †¢ Suppose the consumer is also an entrepreneur who identifies a physical investment opportunity †¢ Initial investment requires $0. 5M on date 0 †¢ Return of $0. 85M on date 1 †¢ Should this consumer/investor take this project? †¢ Without a capital market, it depends on her/his utility function Reference: Raymond Kan Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Consumption Plan and Investment Rule CASE IV – With Capital Market, With Production Opportunities †¢ By investing $0. 5M in a financial asset, receive $0. 55M in return (i. . 10% return) †¢ By investing $0. 5M in a physical asset, receive $0. 85M in return (i. e. 70% return) †¢ Consumer/Investor should take this project †¢ Interest rate is also called the opportunity cost of capital †¢ i. e. Return foregone by investing in a project rather than in comparable investment alternatives Reference: Raymond Kan Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Consumption Plan and Investment Rule CASE IV – With Capital Market, With Production Opportunities Net Present Value (NPV) †¢ Is the project’s net contribution to wealth (i. e. present value minus initial investment) NPV = C0 + C1 1+ r In the above example, the NPV of the project is: NPV = -$0. 5M + $0. 85M = $0. 2727M (1 + 0. 10) Reference: Raymond Kan Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Consumption Plan and Investment Rule CASE IV – With Capital Market, With Production Opportunities NPV Rule †¢ States that: †¢ If a project has a positive NPV, we should accept it †¢ If a project has a negative NPV, we should reject it Equivalent Rules †¢ NPV Rule – Accept positive NPV projects †¢ Rate-of-Return Rule – Invest in projects which offer a rate higher than the cost of capital Reference: Raymond Kan Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca A Separation Theorem You are at a Honda (HMC) shareholders’ meeting †¢ Three shareholders are quite vocal about what the company should do Shareholder #1 – Old Lady †¢ Wants money right now †¢ Wants HMC to invest in sports cars which will yield a quick profit Shareholder #2 – Representative of a Little Boy’s Trust Fund †¢ Wants money a long way in the future †¢ Wants HMC to invest in building electric cars Shareholder #3 – Young Professional †¢ Wants money at some specified time in future (i. e. 10 years) †¢ Wants HMC to build smaller cars because of an expected oil crisis Reference: Raymond Kan Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca A Separation TheoremWhat do you think Honda manag ers should do? Reference: Raymond Kan Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca A Separation Theorem What do you think Honda managers should do? MAXIMIZE VALUE Reference: Raymond Kan Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca A Separation Theorem In general, each shareholder may want: †¢ Maximum wealth †¢ Ability to transfer wealth across time into consumption †¢ Choose risk characteristics of consumption plan Each shareholder, however, can: †¢ Achieve own consumption plan through investments in financial assets †¢ Achieve risk characteristics of plan by investing in more or less risky securitiesEQUITY (CAPITAL GAINS, DIVIDENDS) Reference: Raymond Kan Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca A Separation Theorem In general, each shareholder may want: †¢ Maximum wealth †¢ Ability to transfer wealth across time into consumption †¢ Choose risk characteristics of consumption plan Each shareholder, however, can: †¢ Achieve own consumption plan through investments in financial assets †¢ Achieve risk characteristics of plan by investing in more or less risky securities EQUITY (CAPITAL GAINS, DIVIDENDS) DEBT (INTEREST) TAX AGENCY COSTS Reference: Raymond Kan Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca A Separation Theorem In general, each shareholder may want: †¢ Maximum wealth †¢ Ability to transfer wealth across time into consumption †¢ Choose risk characteristics of consumption plan Each shareholder, however, can: WHAT TYPE OF INCOME DO YOU PREFER? †¢ Achieve own consumption plan through investments in financial assets †¢ Achieve risk characteristics of plan by investing in more or less risky securities EQUITY (CAPITAL GAINS, DIVIDENDS) DEBT (INTEREST) TAX AGENCY COSTS Reference: Raymond Kan Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. caConsumption and Investment with Capital Markets (With Production Set) C1 U3 = (production and capital market) U2 = (with producti on alone) U1 = (initial endowment) C0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment with Capital Markets (With Production Set) C1 C0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment with Capital Markets (With Production Set) C1 Choose the optimal production decision by taking on projects until the marginal rate of return on investment equals the objective market rate) C0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment with Capital Markets (With Production Set) C1 (Choose the optimal consumption pattern by borrowing or lending along the capital market line to equate your subjective time preference with the market rate of return) C0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] toronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment with Capital Markets (With Production Set) C1 (Production/Investment Decision) (Consumption Decision) C0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment with Capital Markets (With Production Set) C1 (Production/Investment Decision) (Consumption Decision) (Fisher Separation Theorem) C0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th Edition 2004Consumption and Investment with Capital Markets (With Production Set) C1 (Fisher Separation Theorem) Given perfect and complete capital markets, the production decision is governed solely by an objective market criterion (represented by maximizing attained wealth ) without regard to individuals’ subjective preferences that enter into consumption decisions C0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment with Capital Markets (With Production Set) C1 (Production/Investment Decision) (Consumption Decision) Fisher Separation Theorem) C0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment with Capital Markets (With Production Set) C1 (Production/Investment Decision) (Consumption Decision) (Fisher Separation Theorem) MRS = MRT = 1+r C0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th Edition 2004 Consumption and Investment with Capital Markets (With Production Set) C1 ALL INDIVIDUALS USE THE SAME TIME VALUE OF MONEY (i. e. ame market interest rate) IN MAKING THEIR PRODUCTION/INVESTMENT DECISIONS (Fisher Separation Theorem) MRS = MRT = 1+r C0 Reference: Copeland, Weston, Shastri (Financial Theory Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca and Corporate Policy) 4 th Edition 2004 Example Ronald, a finance student, has $400 cash-on-hand and has $1,100 in trust from his grandmother. Ronald will receive the trust funds next year. (Market interest rate is 10% or trust funds worth $1,000 today). Ronald has 2 mutually exclusive investment opportunities (i. e. AAA and BBB rated investments). Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. caReference: Don Brean Example Ronald, a finance student, has $400 cash-on-hand and has $1,100 in trust from his grandmother. Ronald will receive the trust funds next year. (Market interest rate is 10% or trust funds worth $1,000 today). Ronald has 2 mutually exclusive investment opportunities (i. e. AAA and BBB rated investments). 1. 2. 3. Which investment should Ronal d invest in, AAA or BBB? How much should he invest? If Ronald makes investment describe his cash flows? (i. e. Consumption spending divided equally in present value terms) Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Reference: Don Brean ExampleRonald, a finance student, has $400 cash-on-hand and has $1,100 in trust from his grandmother. Ronald will receive the trust funds next year. (Market interest rate is 10% or trust funds worth $1,000 today). Ronald has 2 mutually exclusive investment opportunities (i. e. AAA and BBB rated investments). 1. Which investment should Ronald invest in, AAA or BBB? Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Reference: Don Brean Example Ronald, a finance student, has $400 cash-on-hand and has $1,100 in trust from his grandmother. Ronald will receive the trust funds next year. (Market interest rate is 10% or trust funds worth $1,000 today).Ronald has 2 mutually exclusive investment opportunities (i. e. AAA and BBB rated investments). 1. Which investment should Ronald invest in, AAA or BBB? Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Reference: Don Brean Example Ronald, a finance student, has $400 cash-on-hand and has $1,100 in trust from his grandmother. Ronald will receive the trust funds next year. (Market interest rate is 10% or trust funds worth $1,000 today). Ronald has 2 mutually exclusive investment opportunities (i. e. AAA and BBB rated investments). 1. Which investment should Ronald invest in, AAA or BBB? 2. How much should he invest? Contact: otto. [email  protected] toronto. ca Reference: Don Brean Example Ronald, a finance student, has $400 cash-on-hand and has $1,100 in trust from his grandmother. Ronald will receive the trust funds next year. (Market interest rate is 10% or trust funds worth $1,000 today). Ronald has 2 mutually exclusive investment opportunities (i. e. AAA and BBB rated investments). 3. If Ronald makes investment describe his cash flows? (i. e. Consumption spending divided equally i n present value terms) Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Reference: Don Brean Example Ronald, a finance student, has $400 cash-on-hand and has $1,100 in trust from his grandmother.Ronald will receive the trust funds next year. (Market interest rate is 10% or trust funds worth $1,000 today). Ronald has 2 mutually exclusive investment opportunities (i. e. AAA and BBB rated investments). 3. If Ronald makes investment describe his cash flows? (i. e. Consumption spending divided equally in present value terms) PV of Wealth = PV of Consumption PV (C0) = PV (C1) (i. e. C0 = C1 / (1+r) ) NPVBBB Ronald’s PV of Wealth = $400 + $1,000 + $87. 27 = $1,487. 27 $1,487. 27 = C0 + C1 / (1+r) = C0 + [C0 (1+r)] / (1+r) C0 = $743. 64 and C1 = $818 Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Reference: Don Brean ExampleRonald, a finance student, has $400 cash-on-hand and has $1,100 in trust from his grandmother. Ronald will receive the trust funds next year. (Market interest r ate is 10% or trust funds worth $1,000 today). Ronald has 2 mutually exclusive investment opportunities (i. e. AAA and BBB rated investments). 3. If Ronald makes investment describe his cash flows? (i. e. Consumption spending divided equally in present value terms) C0 = $743. 64 Investment in BBB Cash Flow Requirement (CF0) = ($743. 64 + $300) = $1,043. 64 Borrowing Requirement = CF0 – $400 = $643. 64 Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Reference: Don Brean ExampleRonald, a finance student, has $400 cash-on-hand and has $1,100 in trust from his grandmother. Ronald will receive the trust funds next year. (Market interest rate is 10% or trust funds worth $1,000 today). Ronald has 2 mutually exclusive investment opportunities (i. e. AAA and BBB rated investments). 3. If Ronald makes investment describe his cash flows? (i. e. Consumption spending divided equally in present value terms) C1 = $818 Return from BBB Cash Inflow (next year) = $1,100 + $426 = $1,526 Cash Ou tflow (next year) = $818 + $643. 64 + $64. 36 = $1,526 Loan Repayment Interest on Loan @ 10% Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. a Reference: Don Brean Example Ronald, a finance student, has $400 cash-on-hand and has $1,100 in trust from his grandmother. Ronald will receive the trust funds next year. (Market interest rate is 10% or trust funds worth $1,000 today). Ronald has 2 mutually exclusive investment opportunities (i. e. AAA and BBB rated investments). CONCLUDING THOUGHT Ronald’s optimal investment decision (i. e. $300 in BBB) is independent or separate from his decision as to how he inter-temporally allocates his consumption (i. e. C0 and C1) The independence of those two decisions is referred to as the Fisher Separation Theorem. Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Reference: Don Brean â€Å"GET TO KNOW YOU† SURVEY (Name: Optional) Question #1: †¢ What has occurred in your other courses that you were happy about and would like to be i ncorporated into this course ? †¢ What has occurred in your other courses that you were NOT happy about? Question #2: †¢ Anything specific you would like to learn? What are your learning goals in this course? †¢ Any specific requests from the instructor, TAs, program, other support staff, etc? Question #3: †¢ Are you thinking of pursuing further education in Finance, if not then what do you have in mind? And/or†¦ What job(s) are you interested in?Question #4: †¢ Tell me more about yourself (e. g. goals, program concentration, 2nd or 3rd year, etc†¦ ) Question #5: †¢ Any other comments, requests, suggestions, etc? TAKE ~3 MINUTES INDIVIDUALLY TO FILL OUT SURVEY TAKE ~ 5 MINUTES TO TALK TO 5 CLASSMATES WHOM YOU HAVEN’T MET YET (write down initials) SURVEY RESULTS (SUMMARY) †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ Real world experiences, practica l (real-world) examples, cases†¦ Relevant news (where to find news), Current issues in the market Relate course material to real world Exam tips/techniques Applications and excel models used in the real world Interactive class, games, videos†¦Extended office hours (availability) to address questions Humour Practice questions and solutions; Past exams and solutions Capital markets (high-level overview) Typical jobs in finance, Leading finance organizations Additional tutorial time Stock picking, portfolio allocation/analysis, investment tools/strategies, trading tips Learning topics that can be applied in real life Relate designations/roles to course material and applications Better understanding of financial instruments (e. g. Mortgages, bonds, etc†¦ ) View of finance from other functional areas (e. g. Marketing) 13 Popular Case Studies (Failures) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. . Barings (Bank) – Operational Risk (Trading Activities – From arbitrageur to speculator) Nat ional Australia Bank – Operational and Market Risks (Currency Trading) Bankgesellschaft Berlin (Bank) – Credit and Operational Risks (Loans to Property Developers) Taisei Fire and Marine Insurance Co – Insurance & Governance Risks (Uninsured exposure – Lack of understanding) Washington Mutual (Bank) – Credit, Regulatory and Governance Risks; Stress and Scenario Testing (Low lending standards and bad quality acquisitions) Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac – Credit, Market, Operational, Regulatory Governance and Moral Risk; Politicians vs.Financial Risk Management (Sub-prime loans) Long-Term Capital Management – LTCM (Hedge Fund) – Market & Model Risks (Short liquid vs. Long Illiquid Investments (e. g.Bonds) – Russia Defaulted) Bankers Trust (Bank) – Operational Risk (Misled clients on derivatives sold to them) Orange County – Market and Interest Rate Risks (Wrong way bet on interest rates – Borrowing Short a nd Investing Long – Interest Rates Increased) Northern Rock (UK Bank) – Portfolio, Capital Funding, Operational and Reputational Risks; Stress and Scenario Testing (Sub-prime mortgages – Bank Run) Metallgesellschaft AG (Energy Group) – Market Risks (Cash Flow Issues from Written Forwards) Worldcom (Telecom) – Operational Risks (Accounting Fraud – Massive cquisitions & Debt) China Aviation Oil (Singapore) – Market and Governance Risks (Misreported oil futures trading losses, Un-hedged open short positions, Oil Prices Increased) Source: PRMIA 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. SURVEY AND BREAK 13 POPULAR CASE STUDIES Midterm 2011 – Q3 Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Midterm 2011 – Q3 Part A – Assume that there is no capital market, which investment, A or B, will Jack choose? Justify your answer with calculations (6 marks) Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Midterm 2011 – Q3 Part A  œ Assume that there is no capital market, which investment, A or B, will Jack choose?Justify your answer with calculations (6 marks) †¢ If Jack does not invest, his utility is zero †¢ If Jack makes investment A (Utility is ? ) †¢ If Jack makes investment B (Utility is ? ) †¢ Y0 = $500 and Y1 = $0 †¢ Savings = Investment = Y – C Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Midterm 2011 – Q3 Part A – Assume that there is no capital market, which investment, A or B, will Jack choose? Justify your answer with calculations (6 marks) †¢ Investment A †¢ UA = (500-244)1/4 (400)1/2 = 80 Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Midterm 2011 – Q3 Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. caPart A – Assume that there is no capital market, which investment, A or B, will Jack choose? Justify your answer with calculations (6 marks) †¢ Investment B †¢ UB (I) = (500-I)1/4 (50(I)1/2)1/2 †¢ UB (I) = (5 0)1/2 [(500-I)I]1/4 †¢ Find I* by differentiating UB (I) wrt I (set to zero) †¢ dUB(I) = (50)1/2 (1/4) [(500-I)I]-3/4 (500-2I) dI I* = 250 Derivatives (Review) Reference: Martin J. Osborne http://www. economics. utoronto. ca/osborne/MathTutorial/CLCF. HTM Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Midterm 2011 – Q3 Part A – Assume that there is no capital market, which investment, A or B, will Jack choose?Justify your answer with calculations (6 marks) †¢ Investment B †¢ UB (250) = (50)1/2 [(500-I)I]1/4 †¢ UB (250) = 111. 80 †¢ UB > UA Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Midterm 2011 – Q3 Part A – Assume that there is no capital market, which investment, A or B, will Jack choose? Justify your answer with calculations (6 marks) †¢ Note: Two methods to calculate I* †¢ 1st method (take derivative of Utility Function) †¢ What’s the 2nd method? Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Midterm 2011 – Q3 Alternatively – Investment B Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Midterm 2011 – Q3Part B – Which investment, A or B will Jack choose? What is his utilitymaximizing investment I* and the optimal consumption plan? (6 marks) (Assume a perfect capital market for borrowing and lending exists and the market interest rate is 20%) Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Midterm 2011 – Q3 Part B – Which investment, A or B will Jack choose? What is his utilitymaximizing investment I* and the optimal consumption plan? (6 marks) †¢ Jack will choose the investment with the highest NPV †¢ Calculate NPVA and NPVB Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Midterm 2011 – Q3Part B – Which investment, A or B will Jack choose? What is his utilitymaximizing investment I* and the optimal consumption plan? (6 marks) †¢ NPVA = -$244 + ($400)/(1+0. 20) = $89. 33 Contact: otto. [email  p rotected] utoronto. ca Midterm 2011 – Q3 Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Part B – Which investment, A or B will Jack choose? What is his utilitymaximizing investment I* and the optimal consumption plan? (6 marks) †¢ To solve for NPVB †¢ Need to find optimal investment (I*) †¢ set MRT = -(1+r) = -1. 20 I* = $434. 03 †¢ MRT = – dF/dI = -25/(I1/2) = -1. 20 †¢ F = 50 ($434. 31/2) = $1041. 67 †¢ NPVB = -$434. 03 + ($1041. 67/1. 20) = $434. 03 Midterm 2011 – Q3 Part B – Which investment, A or B will Jack choose? What is his utilitymaximizing investment I* and the optimal consumption plan? (6 marks) †¢ To solve for optimal consumption plan (i. e. C0*and C1*) Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Midterm 2011 – Q3 Part B – Which investment, A or B will Jack choose? What is his utilitymaximizing investment I* and the optimal consumption plan? (6 marks) †¢ To solve for optimal consumption plan (i. e. C0*and C1*) †¢ Total Wealth = $500 + $434. 03 = $934. 3 (set equal to C0 + C1/(1+r)) †¢ PV Wealth = PV Consumption †¢ C1 = 1120. 84 – 1. 2C0 Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Midterm 2011 – Q3 Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Part B – Which investment, A or B will Jack choose? What is his utilitymaximizing investment I* and the optimal consumption plan? (6 marks) †¢ To solve for optimal consumption plan (i. e. C0*and C1*) †¢ Total Wealth = $500 + $434. 03 = $934. 03 (set equal to C0 + C1/(1+r)) †¢ U(C0, C1) = C01/4 (1120. 84 – 1. 2C0 )1/2 †¢ dU/dC0 = (1/4)C0-3/4 (1120. 84 – 1. 2C0)1/2 – 1. 2 x (1/2)C01/4(1120. 4 – 1. 2C0)-1/2 †¢ Setting it equal to zero: 1120. 84 – 1. 2C0 = 2. 4C0 C0* = $311. 34 †¢ C1* = 1120. 84 – 1. 2C0 = $747. 22 Midterm 2011 – Q3 Part B – Which investment, A or B will Jack choose? What is his utilitymaximizing investment I* and the optimal consumption plan? (6 marks) (Assume a perfect capital market for borrowing and lending exists and the market interest rate is 20%) †¢ Alternatively: To solve for optimal consumption plan (i. e. C0*and C1*) Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Midterm 2011 – Q3 Part B – Which investment, A or B will Jack choose?What is his utilitymaximizing investment I* and the optimal consumption plan? (6 marks) †¢ Alternatively: To solve for optimal consumption plan (i. e. C0*and C1*) †¢ MRS = – (1+r), which leads to †¢ – (C1/2C0) = 1. 2 C1 = 2. 4 C0 †¢ Budget constraint: C0 + C1 / (1+r) = Total Wealth = $934. 03 C1 = 1120. 84 – 1. 2C0 C0* = $311. 34 C1* = $747. 22 Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Midterm 2011 – Q3 Part C – Jack can hire a worker to supervise one investment for him. As a result, he can now invest in both production opportunities if he wants.If he hires a worker, he has to pay wages in equal instalments (i. e. Same wage today and next period). What maximum wage per period would Jack be willing to pay? (4 marks) Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Midterm 2011 – Q3 Part C – Jack can hire a worker to supervise one investment for him. As a result, he can now invest in both production opportunities if he wants. If he hires a worker, he has to pay wages in equal instalments (i. e. Same wage today and next period). What maximum wage per period would Jack be willing to pay? (4 marks) †¢ NPVA = $89. 33 = W + (W/1. 20) †¢ W = $48. 3 (i. e. Maximum wage per period) Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Midterm 2011 – Q3 Part D – Jill earns an income of $250 today and $250 next period but has no access to any production opportunities. She can, however spend some money today to purchase investment opportunity B. Her utility function is: U(C0, C1) = C0 + 2C1 + min(C0, C1) What is the highest price that Jill is willing to pay? (4 marks) Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca Midterm 2011 – Q3 Part D – Jill earns an income of $250 today and $250 next period but has no access to any production opportunities.She can, however spend some money today to purchase investment opportunity B. Her utility function is: U(C0, C1) = C0 + 2C1 + min(C0, C1) What is the highest price that Jill is willing to pay? (4 marks) †¢ With a perfect capital market, the Fisher Separation Theorem applies †¢ So the maximum amount she will pay is $434. 03 (i. e. NPVB) Contact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca FINANCIAL MARKETS AND NET PRESENT VALUE (TO SUCCEED – PRACTICE, PRACTICE, PRACTICE) Week 3 – Quick Review (Self-Evaluation) of Week 2 â€Å"GET TO KNOW YOU† SURVEY (Name: Optional)Question #1: †¢ What has occurred in your other courses that you were happy about and would like to be incorporated int o this course ? †¢ What has occurred in your other courses that you were NOT happy about? Question #2: †¢ Anything specific you would like to learn? What are your learning goals in this course? †¢ Any specific requests from the instructor, TAs, program, other support staff, etc? Question #3: †¢ Are you thinking of pursuing further education in Finance, if not then what do you have in mind? And/or†¦ What job(s) are you interested in? Question #4: †¢ Tell me more about yourself (e. . goals, program concentration, 2nd or 3rd year, etc†¦ ) Question #5: †¢ Any other comments, requests, suggestions, etc? TAKE ~3 MINUTES INDIVIDUALLY TO FILL OUT SURVEY TAKE ~ 5 MINUTES TO TALK TO 5 CLASSMATES WHOM YOU HAVEN’T MET YET (write down initials) SURVEY RESULTS (SUMMARY) †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ Real world experiences, practical (real-world) examples, cases†¦ Relevant news (where to find news), Current issues in the market Relate course material to real world Exam tips/techniques Applications and excel models used in the real world Interactive class, games, videos†¦Extended office hours (availability) to address questions Humour Practice questions and solutions; Past exams and solutions Capital markets (high-level overview) Typical jobs in finance, Leading finance organizations Additional tutorial time Stock picking, portfolio allocation/analysis, investment tools/strategies, trading tips Learning topics that can be applied in real life Relate designations/roles to course material and applications Better understanding of financial instruments (e. g. Mortgages, bonds, etc†¦ ) View of finance from other functional areas (e. g. Marketing) http://www. explorefinancialservices. om/Options http://www. explorefinancialservices. com/ Financial Markets: What is Going On? Firms (Users of Capital) Initial Public Off ering (IPO) Secondary Offerings (SEO) Borrowing (Loans, Bonds) Dividends, $ Repurchases, Interest Payments $ Market Mechanisms or Market Makers (Stock Exchanges, Banks, Investment Funds, †¦) $ $ Firms Issue Stock Certificates and Bonds $ $$$ Invested in Stocks and Bonds Investors (Providers of Capital) Investment Banks help firms make transactions Brokers/Dealers help investors make transactions Reference: Alex MacKay 113 Hedge Fund Strategies Dedicated ShortSource: AIMA Canada Further Reading Hedge Funds – Emerging Market Strategy †¢ Emerging Markets (American Depository Receipts – ADRs vs. Foreign Securities) http://www. sec. gov/pdf/ininvest. pdf (Page 12) (SAP) Hedge Fund – Quants †¢ Jim Simons (Renaissance Technologies) – Commodities/Futures – (Rapid Fire Trading) – (computer and system specialists, researchers and traders) (computational linguists–speech recognition/investing) †¢ http://chinese-school. netfir ms. com/abacus-hedge-funds-Jim-Simons. html †¢ †¢ Kenneth Griffin (Citadel Investment Group) – Convertible Bonds –> Long-Short †¢ http://money. cnn. om/2008/12/08/news/companies/citadel_vickers. boyd. fortune/index. htm The Quants (Scott Patterson – Wall Street Journal Reporter) †¢ †¢ http://www. businessweek. com/magazine/content/10_09/b4168070829612. htm http://online. wsj. com/article/SB10001424052748704509704575019032416477138. html Steven Palmer (AlphaNorth Asset Management Inc) (Microcap – Tech) †¢ http://www. theglobeandmail. com/globe-investor/funds-and-etfs/funds/top-hedge-fund-manager-turns-to-techmicro-caps/article1884049/ House Dems propose taxing equity trades to fund new federal programs †¢ †¢ †¢ Financial transaction tax on all stock (0. 5%), bond (0. %) and derivatives (0. 005%) trades Protects financial markets from speculation Make high-frequency trading â€Å"unprofitable† http://thehi ll. com/blogs/floor-action/house/249893-house-dems-propose-taxing-equity-trades-to-fund-new-federal-programs Harsh HFT curbs could sneak into MiFID †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ Introduction of minimum resting times between trades Could force HFT firms out of the market, widening spreads and making trading more costly Meetings held with the European Parliament’s Economic and Monetary Affairs Committee (ECON) MiFID (Markets in Financial Instruments Directive) – European Union Law http://www. hetradenews. com/news/Regions/Europe/Harsh_HFT_curbs_could_sneak_into_MiFID_II. aspx CAPITAL MARKET THEORY RSM 332 – Week 2 Week 1 – Introduction – Financial Accounting (Review) Week 2 – Financial Markets and Net Present Value Week 3 – Present Value Concepts Week 4 – Bond Valuation and Term Structure Theory Week 5 – Valuation of Stocks Week 6 – Risk and Return – Problem Set #1 Due Week 7* – Midterm (Tuesday*) We ek 8 – Portfolio Theory Week 9 – Capital Asset Pricing Model Week 10 – Arbitrage Pricing Theory Week 11 – Operation and Efficiency of Capital Markets Week 12 – Course Review – Problem Set #2 DueContact: otto. [email  protected] utoronto. ca THANK YOU SEE YOU NEXT WEEK! OFFICE HOURS WEDNESDAYS – 4:00PM-6:00PM ROOM 413 OR 417 105 ST. GEORGE STREET ROTMAN (NORTH BUILDING)

Monday, January 6, 2020

Definition and Examples of Attributive Adjective

In English grammar, an attributive adjective is an adjective that usually comes before the noun it modifies without a linking verb. Contrast with a predicative adjective. Attributive adjectives are direct modifiers of nominals. Examples Hush-a-by, Dont you cryGo to sleep, little baby.When you wake you shall findAll the pretty little horses.(Traditional American lullaby, perhaps of African-American origin)In those tender mornings, the Store was full of laughing, joking, boasting, and bragging.In a rush of pity—sympathy, affection, hope—I said the most stupid thing ever.A beautiful form is better than a beautiful face; it gives a higher pleasure than statues or pictures; it is the finest of the fine arts.†(Ralph Waldo Emerson, Manners)I know he was a bad man who did vicious, horrible things, some of them to me, but he had a good side, too. Just like all of us.He was a gorgeous, heart-stopping, too-yummy-to-be-believed, genuine hunk, and she was crazy to even consider kissing him.It had been a nasty little affair, a grim and unpleasant war, fought in a dark, never-ending nightmare of ambush and merciless killing--an eye-to-eye, face-to-face war where prisoner was a doubtful word. Observations on Attributive and Predicative Functions There are two main kinds of adjectives: attributive ones normally come right before the noun they qualify, while predicative adjectives come after to be or similar verbs such as become and seem. Most adjectives can serve either purpose: we can speak of a happy family and say the family appeared happy. But some work only one way. Take the sentence Clergymen are answerable to a higher authority. Answerable is exclusively a predicative; you could not refer to an answerable clergyman. And higher is strictly attributive; you wouldnt normally say, The authority is higher.Attributive adjectives sometimes follow the model of French and come after the noun, as when we refer to accounts payable, something important, proof positive, matters philosophical, paradise lost, a battle royal, the heir apparent, stage left, time immemorial, or a Miller Lite.(Ben Yagoda, When You Catch an Adjective, Kill It. Broadway Books, 2007)There are a significant number of adjectives which, either absolutely or wi th a certain meaning, are restricted to attributive function (e.g. mere, former, main) or excluded from it (e.g., alone, asleep, glad happy/please).(Rodney Huddleston and Geoffrey K. Pullum, The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge University Press, 2002) Sources Maya Angelou,  I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. Random House, 1969Leonard Michaels, Viva La Tropicana.  The Collected Stories. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007Nick Santora,  Slip Fall. State Street, 2007Julianna Morris,  Meeting Megan Again. Silhouette, 2001George Brown,  The Double Tenth. Arrow, 2012